Sennertia cerambycina
Fig. 1. Sennertia cerambycina, heteromorphic deutonymph, ex Xylocopa violacea, France (BMOC 05-0420-424). Click here to enlarge
Bee Mites : Acari : Acariformes : Sarcoptiformes : Chaetodactylidae : Sennertia : Sennertia species

Sennertia cerambycina (Scopoli, 1763)

Pediculus Cerambycinus Scopoli, 1763: 386 (holotype not designated, syntypes presumed lost)
Sennertia cerambycina: Oudemans, 1905a: 22 (designated as type species of Sennertia); Vitzthum, 1919: 42 (comparison with S. morstatti, S. perturbans, S. caffra, S. horrida, and S. bifilis); Vitzthum, 1922: 63; Vitzthum, 1929: 77 (in key, Fig. 120 ("Sennertia cerambycina") is actually S. horrida); Vitzthum, 1933: 152; Vitzthum, 1941: 307; Eyndhoven, 1941: 325, Fig. 1; Eyndhoven, 1952: XXXIV; Skaife, 1952: 76; Grandi, 1963: 87 (record from Polochrum); Elbadry, 1971: 87 (comparison with HDN of Sennertia egyptiaca); Fain, 1971: 265 (comparison with HDN Sennertia mesotrichia); Grobov, 1978: 49 (review of historical records, indicating that this mite infest honeybees Apis mellifera visiting sunflowers and causing significant death of colonies in France and Russia); Wurst & Pfister, 1990: 161; Vicidomini & Meloni, 1999: 138; Vicidomini, 1997: 595; Vicidomini & Campadelli, 2005: 377; Vicidomini, 2007: 1; Klimov & OConnor, 2008: 225; Okabe et al., 2008: 1378
Sennertia (Sennertia) cerambycina: Fain, 1981a: 152, Figs 1, 4, 65 (redescription of HDN, included in key, cerambycina species-group assignment); Lombert et al., 1987: 113; Sennertia (Sennertia) cerambycina: OConnor, 1993a: 362 (genus-level character acquisition); Vicidomini, 1996: 71 (note on host associations)
Trichodactyle Xylocopae Donnadieu, 1868: 84, Figs 1, 3, 4, 7, 9; Canestrini & Fanzago, 1878: 205, Fig. 7.3; Mégnin, 1880: 147 (evidence presented that Trichodactylus may be a developmental stage of other free-living Astigmata); Berlese, 1884b: 12 (comparison of adults with Homopus, Dermacarus, and Trichodactylus anonymus); Berlese, 1885: XVIII, n. 1, Fig. 1 (description of HDN and adults from Italy; authorship inconsistently attributed to Donnadieu or Dugès); Canestrini & Berlese, 1885: 206, Figs 6.1-5 (authorship attributed to Dugès; description of HDN and adults); Canestrini, 1888a: 394, Fig. 36.1-6 (description of male, female, and HDN); Canestrini, 1888b: 23, Figs 2.7-9 (short description of adults and HDNs); Berlese, 1897: 105, Figs 4.4-5 (authorship cited as "(Dugès) Canestrini"; HDN included in key; Eutarsus cancriformis Hessling, 1852 (=Cheyletus eruditus (Schrank, 1781)) considered as junior synonym of Trichotarsus Xylocopae "Dugès, 1834" (p. 110)); Berlese, 1903a: 322 (short note on damage to host nest)
Sennertia xylocopae: Türk & Türk, 1957: 210, Fig. 163 (redescription, included in key)
Trichotarsus cerambycinus: Oudemans, 1905b: LXXX (redescription of HDN; considered as senior synonym of Trichotarsus xylocopae)
Trichodactylus xylocopae: Murray, 1877: 252 (part.), Fig. ; Berlese, 1892: fasc. LXV, n 1 (hyperphoresy of HDNs on males and females of mite Aeroglyphus peregrinans (as Glycyphagus peregrinans) (Aeroglyphidae); name given in plural form, Trichodacyli xylocopae); Canestrini, 1897: 474 (comparison with Sennertia bifilis HDN); Canestrini & Kramer, 1899: 149 (redescription of HDN and adults; HDN and females included in key); Tietze in Canestrini, 1899: 938 (authorship attributed to Dugès); Giard, 1900: 377 (included in key); Oudemans, 1900: 116 (comparison with HDNs of Trichotarsus japonicus and T. alfkeni); Oudemans, 1901: 81 (included in key, comparison with S. koptorthosomae); Oudemans, 1902: 44 (comparison with Trichotarsus hipposideros); Oudemans, 1903a: 147 (included in key, assigned to group D in Trichotarsus); Trägårdh, 1907: 12 (comparison with Trichotarsus antarcticus); Popovici-Baznosanu, 1913: 32; Vitzthum, 1912c: 232, Fig 17, 18; Vitzthum, 1912d: 292
Trichodactylus osmiae: Gervais, 1844: 266 (part., not distinguished from Chaetodactylus osmiae)

Misidentifications: Banks, 1902: 176 (Sennertia lucrosa)

Material (show database records).

Biology. Normally associated with Xylocopa (see below), feeding on the provisioned pollen in the bee nest. Rarely dead bee eggs and larvae can be found in the infested cells. However, it is unclear if the mite presence causes the death or the mite can kill the bee eggs or larvae directly (Vicidomini, 1996).
Adult bees of Xylocopa violacea extensively infested with S. cerambycina show slow flight, lack of precision in flying trajectories, difficult and imprecise landing, heavy take-off, and reduced feeding rates (Vicidomini, 1999). Phoretic mites may block the epinotal spiracles, causing asphyxia in the bee host (Vicidomini, 1999).
Duchemin (1886) reports death of 30 honeybee hives in France attributable to this mite. The mite infests honeybees visiting sunflowers, eventually causing death of colonies. Similar cases (e. g., death of honeybee colonies with the introduction of sunflower) were reported in Russia at the end of 19th - beginning of 20th century (reviewed Grobov, 1978). Experimental data suggesting that the mite is responsible for the death of bees are, however, absent.

Xylocopa violacea (Linnaeus, 1758)(as Apis Violaceae) (type host),
Xylocopa (Xylocopa) valga Gerstäcker, 1872
Xylocopa (Xylocopa) varentzowi Morawitz, 1895
Xylocopa (Proxylocopa) nitidiventris Smith, 1878
Xylocopa (Proxylocopa) przewalskyi Morawitz, 1886
Xylocopa (Copoxyla) turanica Morawitz, 1875
Xylocopa (Copoxyla) iris (Christ, 1791)
Polochrum repandum Spinola, 1806 (Hymenoptera, Sapygidae) (cleptoparasite of Xylocopa)
(Scopoli, 1763; Vitzthum, 1912c; Zachvatkin, 1941; Vicidomini, 2005)

Occasionally found phoretic on the following bee hosts:
Hoplitis princeps (Morawitz, 1872) (as Osmia princeps)
Osmia (Monosmia) apicata Smith, 1853(as Osmia macroglossa)
Megachile (Eutricharaea) leachella Curtis, 1828 (as Megachile argentata)
Anthophora (Paramegilla) balassogloi (Radoszkowski, 1876) (as Anthidium christofi F. Mor.)
(Zachvatkin, 1941)

Distribution (show map). "Carniola" (in modern Slovenia) (type locality), Greece, France, Italy, Spain, Germany, Netherlands, Iran, China (Donnadieu, 1868; Canestrini & Fanzago, 1878; Eyndhoven, 1941; Scopoli, 1763; Vicidomini & Meloni, 1999; Vitzthum, 1912c; Zachvatkin, 1941; Fain, 1981a), "All Europe" (Berlese, 1897), "All southern, central, and eastern Europe, up to 55°N; West and Central Asia up to Tibet and Gashun Gobi Desert (China) on the east and up to northern Iran to the south" (Zachvatkin, 1941).

Banks, N. 1902. New genera and species of acarians. The Canadian Entomologist.34: 171-176.
Berlese, A. 1884. Note relative agli Acari, Myriopodi e Scorpioni italiani (Note al Fascicolo XIII e XIV). Fasc. I. Padova: Premiata Tipografia Editrice F. Sachetto. 14 pp.
Berlese, A. 1885. Acari, Myriopoda et Scorpiones hucusque in Italia reperta. Fasc. 18, n. 1. Padova: Premiata Tipografia Francesco Sachetto. (no page numbers) pp.
Berlese, A. 1892. Acari, Myriopoda et Scorpiones hucusque in Italia reperta. Fasc. 65, n. 1. Tipografia del Seminario: Padova. (no page numbers) pp.
Berlese, A. 1897. Acari Myriopoda et Scorpiones hicusque in Italia reperta. Ordo Cryptostigmata (Sarcoptidae). Portici. 190 pp.
Berlese, A. 1903. Illustrazione iconografica degli Acari mirmecofili. Redia.1: 300-474 + plates vii-xx.
Canestrini, G. 1888a. I Tiroglifidi Studio Critico. Studi Editi dalla Università di Padova: a Commemorare l'Ottavo Centenario dalla Origine della Università di Bologna.3: 1-32 + plates i-ii.
Canestrini, G. 1888b. Prospetto dell' acàrofauna Italiana: Famiglie: Tarsonemini e Tiroglifini e Appendice agli Analgesini. III. Padova. 309-427 + plaltes 22-36. pp.
Canestrini, G. 1897. Nuovi Acaroidei della Nuova-Guinea. Természetrajzi füzetek (Budapest).20: 461-474.
Canestrini, G. & A. Berlese. 1885. Noto intorno a due acari poco conosciuti. Atti della Società Veneto-Trentina di Scienze Naturali, residente in Padova.9: 206-208 + plates vi-vii.
Canestrini, G. & E. Fanzago. 1878 [1877-78]. Intorno agli Acari Italiani: Studii. Atti del Reale Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, Ser. 5.4: 69-208 + plates ii-vii.
Canestrini, G. & P. Kramer. 1899. Demodicidae and Sarcoptidae. In Das Tierreich. 8 Lieferung (ed. H. Lohmann), ed. F. E. Schulze, 1-193. Berlin: Verlag von R. Friedländer und Sohn.
Donnadieu, A. L. 1868. Sur le genre Trichodactyle. Annales des Sciences Naturelles. 5th Sér. Zoologie et Paléontologie.10: 69-85.
Duchemin, E. 1886. Note sur les abeilles et un de leurs parasites. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences.62: 48-49, 225-226, 683.
Elbadry, E. A. 1971. Sennertia egyptiaca sp. n. (Acari: Chaetodactylidae), a phoretic mite associated with the carpenter bee Xylocopa aestuans Linn. Zeitschrift für Angewandte Entomologie.69: 87-90.
Eyndhoven, G. L. v. 1941. lets over het voorkomen van Mijten op Houtbijen. Entomologische Berichten.10: 324-329.
Eyndhoven, G. L. v. 1952. Sennertia cerambycina in Nederland (Acar.) In Verslag en Wetenschappelijke Mededelingen van de Tiende Herfstvergadering der Nederlandsche Entomologische Vereeniging. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie.95: XXXIV.
Fain, A. 1971. Nouveaux hypopes du genre Sennertia Oudemans,1905. (Acarina: Glycyphagidae). Bulletin et Annales de la Societe Royale d'Entomologie de Belgique.107: 264-271.
Fain, A. 1981. A revision of the phoretic deutonymphs (hypopi) of the genus Sennertia Oudemans, 1905 (Acari, Astigmata, Chaetodactylidae). Systematic Parasitology.3: 145-183.
Gervais, P. 1844. Acérés Phrynéides, Scorpionides, Solpugides, Phalangides et Acarides; Dicères Épîzoïques, Aphaniptères et Thysanoures. In Histoire naturelle des insectes. Aptères. Vol. 3., ed. C. A. Walckenaer, 1-476 (plates published separately: Walckenaer C. A., Gervais P. [1844 assumed]. Histoire naturelle des insectes. Aptères: Atlas. 1-25 + plates 1-52). Paris: Imprimerie de Fain et Thunot.
Giard, A. 1900. Sur un nouveau Tyroglyphide (Trichotarsus manicati, n. sp.) [Acar.] parasite d'Anthidium manicatum L., et sur le genre Trichotarsus. Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique de France.1900: 375-377.
Grandi, G. 1963. Contributi alla conoscenza degli Imenotteri Aculeati. XXXI. Bollettino dell'Istituto di Entomologia della Universita degli Studi di Bologna.26: 55-102.
Grobov, O. F. 1978. Kleshchi medonosnoy pchely (Apis mellifera L.): ikh znachenie i osnovnue printsypy bor'by s kleschchevymi porazheniyami [=Mites of the honeybee (Apis mellifera L.): their significance and main principles of control of diseases caused by mites]. Doctor of Sciences (Habilitation) Thesis. 536. Moscow: All-Union Institute of Experimental Veterinary, All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences.
Klimov, P. B. & B. M. OConnor. 2008. Morphology, evolution, and host associations of bee-associated mites of the family Chaetodactylidae (Acari: Astigmata), with a monographic revision of North American taxa. Miscellaneous Publications Museum of Zoology University of Michigan.199: 1-243.
Lombert, H. A. P. M., B. M. OConnor, F. S. Lukoschus & J. O. Whitaker, Jr. . 1987. Ontogeny, systematics and ecology of Sennertia (Amsennertia) americana Delfinado & Baker, 1976 (Acari: Chaetodactylidae) from the nest of the carpenter bee, Xylocopa virginica (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae). International Journal of Acarology.13: 113-129.
Mégnin, E. 1880. Les parasites et les maladies parasitaires chez l'homme, les animaux domestiques et les animaux sauvages avec lesquels ils peuvent étre en contact: insectes, arachnides, crustacés. Paris: Masson. 478 pp.
Murray, A. 1877. Economic Entomology, Aptera: prepared at the request of the Lords of the Committee of Council on education, and published for them. London: Chapman and Hall. 433 pp.
OConnor, B. M. 1993. Generic relationships in the Chaetodactylidae (Acari: Astigmata) with description of a new genus. Acarologia.34: 345-362.
Okabe, K., S. I. Makino & T. Endo. 2008. Polymorphism in the deutonymph and adult of Sennertia alfkeni (Acari: Chaetodactylidae) associated with the large carpenter bee, Xylocopa appendiculata circumvolans (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Journal of Natural History.42: 1361-1384.
Oudemans, A. C. 1900. Further notes on Acari. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie.43: 109-128.
Oudemans, A. C. 1901. Notes on Acari. 3d ser. Tijdschrift der Nederlandsche Dierkundige Vereeniging. Leiden.7: 50-87 + plates i-iii.
Oudemans, A. C. 1902. Acarologische aantekeningen. Entomologische Berichten.1: 43-45.
Oudemans, A. C. 1903. Notes on Acari: Fifth Series. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie.45: 123-150.
Oudemans, A. C. 1905a. Acari in Verslag van de zestigste Zomervergadering der Nederlandsche Entomologische Vereeniging, gehouden te Driebergen op Zaterdag 20 Mei 1905. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie.48: LXXVII- LXXXI.
Oudemans, A. C. 1905b. Acarologische Aanteekeningen XX. Entomologische Berichten.2: 15-23.
Popovici-Baznosanu, A. 1913. Etude biologique sur l'acarien Trichotarsus osmiae Duf. Archives de Zoologie Expérimentale et Générale, Paris.52: 32-41.
Scopoli, I. A. 1763. Entomologia Carniolica: exhibens insecta Carnioliæ indigena et distributa in ordines, genera, species, varietates methodo linnæana. Vindobonae: I. T. Trattner. pp.
Skaife, S. H. 1952. The yellow-banded carpenter bee Mesotrichia caffra Linn., and its symbiotic mite, Dinogamasus braunsi Vitzthum. The Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa.15: 63-76.
Tietze, F. 1899. Contributo all’acarologia d’Italia. Osservazioni sull’ Acarofauna del litorale di Malamocco. In Prospetto dell'acarofauna Italiana. Parte VIII, ed. G. Canestrini, 929-955. Padova: Stabilimento Prosperini.
Trägårdh, I. 1907. Acariens terrestres. In Expédition antarctique française (1903-1905). Commandée par le Dr Jean Charcot. Sciences naturelles: Documents scientifiques. Arthropodes, Pycnogonides, ed. J. Charcot, 11-13. Paris: Masson et Cie.
Türk, E. & F. Türk. 1957. Systematik und Ökologie der Tyroglyphiden Mitteleuropas. In Beiträge zur Systematik und Ökologie mitteleuropäischer Acarina. Band 1. Tyroglyphidae und Tarsonemini, ed. H.-J. Stammer, 4-384. Leipzig: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft Geest & Portig K.-G.
Vicidomini, S. 1996. Biologia di Xylocopa (Xylocopa) violacea (L., 1758) (Hymenoptera: Apidae): interazione con Sennertia (Sennertia) cerambycina (Acari Chaetodactylidae). Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura.28: 71-76.
Vicidomini, S. 1997 [1996-1997]. Biologia di Xylocopa (Xylocopa) violacea (L., 1758): competitori, parassiti e predatori dei nidi. (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale "Giacomo Doria".91: 589-605.
Vicidomini, S. 1999. Nuovi dati sulla distribuzione italiana e sugli ospiti degli acari Chaetodactylidae e nuova ipotesi sul tipo di interazione con gli Xylocopini (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Gli Uccelli d'Italia.24: 97-102.
Vicidomini, S. 2005. Sistematica e distribuzione degli Xylocopini (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Xylocopinae): faunistica delle regioni alpine con note sulla presenza dell'acaro foretico Sennertia cerambycina (Acari: Astigmata). Gredleriana.5: 227-235.
Vicidomini, S. 2007. Distribuzione degli Xylocopini (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Xylocopinae) in Italia: il Parco del Vulcano Etna e aree limitrofe (provincia di Catania: Sicilia). Naturalista Campano.4: 1-4.
Vicidomini, S. & G. Campadelli. 2005 [2004]. Biologia e distribuzione degli Xylocopini italiani (Hymenoptera: Apidae): nuovi dati sulla biologia di Xylocopa violacea (L.) e la distribuzione di X. valga (Gerstaecker, 1872) in sud Italia. Annali dei Musei Civici Rovereto.20: 375-387.
Vicidomini, S. & C. Meloni. 1999. Xylocopini (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Xylocopinae) presenti nelle collezioni entomologiche italiane: le collezioni della Sardegna. Annali del Museo Civico di Rovereto.13: 137-142.
Vitzthum, H. 1922. Die Trapp'sche Bienetimilbe. Archiv für Bienenkunde.4: 61-64.
Vitzthum, G. H. 1929. Ordnung: Milben, Acari. In Die Tierwelt Mitteleuropas. Spinnentiere, eds. P. Brohmer, P. Ehrmann & G. Ulmer, 1-112. Leiptzig: Quelle & Meyer.
Vitzthum, H. 1912a. Ueber einige auf Apiden lebende Milben. Zeitschrift für Wissenschaftliche Insektenbiologie.8: 289-293.
Vitzthum, H. 1912b. Ueber einige auf Apiden lebende Milben. Zeitschrift für Wissenschaftliche Insektenbiologie.8: 231-233.
Vitzthum, H. 1919. Acarologische Beobachtungen. 3. Reihe. Archiv für Naturgeschichte.85(Abt. A, no. 5): 1-62.
Vitzthum, H. 1933. Die endoparasitische Deutonymphe von Pterolichus nisi. Zeitschrift fur Parasitenkunde.6: 151-169.
Vitzthum, H. 1941. Über den Symphorismus einiger unbekannter Tyroglyphiden-Deutonymphen. Zeitschrift fur Parasitenkunde.12: 307-316.
Wurst, E. & T. Pfister. 1990. On the biology of Baloghella melis Mahunka, 1963 (Acari: Acaridida: Glycyphagidae) Bonner Zoologische Beiträge.41: 157-162.



B. OConnor and P. Klimov ©
Created: Jun 09, 2011
Last modified: