mite Roubikia latebrosa in metasomal acarinarium of bee Tetrapedia
Fig. 1. Phoretic deutonymphs of Roubikia latebrosa at the entrance of the metasomal acarinarium of bee Tetrapedia sp. (Peru, BMOC-03-1008-052)  Click here to enlarge
mite Roubikia officiosa
Fig. 2. Phoretic deutonymphs of Roubikia imberba, holotype, Argentina (BMOC 04-0508-252)  Click here to enlarge

Bee Mites : Acari : Acariformes : Sarcoptiformes : Chaetodactylidae
Genus Roubikia OConnor, 1993

Roubikia OConnor, 1993a: 347; Eickwort, 1994: 221; Van Asselt, 2000: 225; Okabe & Makino, 2002: 82; Klimov & OConnor, 2007: 818; Klimov et al., 2007a: 1370; Klimov et al., 2007b: 117; Klimov & OConnor, 2008: 100
Chaetodactylus (non Rondani): Baker et al., 1987: 65 (part.); Roubik, 1987: 75; Qu et al., 2003: 60 (part.).
'Chaetodactylus' OConnor, 1988: 341.

Type species Chaetodactylus panamensis Baker, Roubik and Delfinado-Baker, 1987, by original designation.

Biology and host association. Species of Roubikia are mutualists or commensals feeding on the nest materials, fatty acids from floral oils, or probably, on fungi harmful to the bee larvae (Cordeiro at al., 2010). The presence of a metasomal acarinarium harboring Roubikia latebrosa from Peru (Fig. 1) further suggests mutualistic relationships (Klimov et al., 2007b).
The four described species are exclusively associated with Tetrapedia (Apidae: Tetrapediini). Roubikia panamensis and R. imberba occur on cleptoparasitic bees of the genus Coelioxoides (Apidae: Tetrapediini) attacking their principal host (Alvez-Dos-Santos et al., 2002). Biology is only known for Roubikia panamensis. Inert heteromorphic deutonymph is unknown.
Distribution (show map). Neotropical region.
Description. (unique characters only). Phoretic deutonymph. Gnathosomal solenidion and gnathosomal setae present and free palpi absent. Coxal fields IV closed. Apodemes of ps1 partially fused anteriorly. Dorsal cuticular folds of ambulacra I-III weakly developed, with distal part smaller than proximal.
Larva. Claparède's organ shaft slightly asymmetrical, distinctly narrowing terminally and ending in button-shaped dome.
Adults. Paraxial and antiaxial rutellar lobes (rlp and rpa) fused ventrally, paraxial lobe distinct only dorsally. Supracoxal seta spiniform, with rounded tip. Dorsal condylar plate of femur-tibia joint narrow, posterior.
Female. Spermatophores present. Inseminatory canal cylindrical, well sclerotized, protruding inside spermatheca. Condylophores with short sclerotized portion and distinct proximal unsclerotized portion connected to the tarsus.
Male. Genital setae represented by transparent disk. Genital setae distinctly (more than their diameter at base) anterior to progenital folds. Tarsal setae e III-IV absent. Setae s and w IV separated, w submedial, s subapical. Sclerotized portions of condylophores fused and incorporated into disto-ventral sclerotized tarsal wall, pretarsal suckers not developed. Heteromorphic males present.

Species included
  1. Roubikia imberba Klimov and OConnor, 2007
  2. Roubikia latebrosa Klimov and OConnor, 2007
  3. Roubikia officiosa Klimov and OConnor, 2007
  4. Roubikia panamensis (Baker, Roubik and Delfinado-Baker, 1987)

Key to species of Roubikia
Heteromorphic deutonymphs (unique character states underlined)

1. Dorsal extensions of apodemes I-II usually completely surrounding setae scx. 0-2 gnathosomal setae. Setae si usually exceed distance from lateral edge of prodorsal shield to base of si + distance between si. Seta mG I slightly pectinate. Seta mG II equal to or exceeding length of leg II (with claw). ex Tetrapedia sp. and cleptoparasites Coelioxoides waltheriae and C. exulans, Argentina ... Roubikia imberba Klimov and OConnor, 2007
- Dorsal extensions of apodemes I-II not completely surrounding setae scx. 2 gnathosomal setae. Other characters variable ... 2
2(1) Setae si about 2 or more times longer than se. Setae si usually as long as distance from lateral edge of prodorsal shield to base of si + distance between si. Seta mG I slightly pectinate. Seta mG II nearly as long as leg II (with claw). ex Tetrapedia sp. Peru ... Roubikia latebrosa Klimov and OConnor 2007
- Setae si less than 2 times longer than se. Other characters variable ... 3
3(2) Setae mG I pectinate (sometimes only slightly). Setae mG II usually longer than combined length of femur-tibia II. ex Tetrapedia sp. (type host), Tetrapedia diversipes, T. peckoltii and cleptoparasites Coelioxoides waltheriae. Panama (type locality), French Guiana, Brazil, Bolivia, Mexico. [possibly a complex of cryptic species] ... Roubikia panamensis (Baker, Roubik and Delfinado-Baker, 1987)
- Setae mG I smooth. Setae mG II distinctly shorter than combined length of femur-tibia II. ex Tetrapedia maura. Mexico. ... Roubikia officiosa Klimov and OConnor, 2007

Alves-Dos-Santos, I., G. A. R. Melo & J. G. Rozen, Jr. 2002. Biology and immature stages of the bee tribe Tetrapediini (Hymenoptera: Apidae). American Museum Novitates.3377: 1-45.
Baker, E. W., D. W. Roubik & M. Delfinado-Baker. 1987. The developmental stages and dimorphic males of Chaetodactylus panamensis, n. sp. (Acari: Chaetodactylidae) associated with solitary bee (Apoidea: Anthophoridae). International Journal of Acarology.13: 65-73.
Cordeiro, G. D., M. Taniguchi, C. H. W. Flechtmann & I. Alves-dos-Santos. 2010. Phoretic mites (Acari: Chaetodactylidae) associated with the solitary bee Tetrapedia diversipes (Apidae: Tetrapediini). Apidologie.
Eickwort, G. C. 1994. Evolution and life-history patterns of mites associated with bees. In Mites: Ecological and Evolutionary Analyses of Life-History Patterns, ed. M. A. Houck, 218-251. London: Chapman & Hall.
Klimov, P. B. & B. M. OConnor. 2007. Ancestral area analysis of chaetodactylid mites (Acari: Chaetodactylidae), with description of new early derivative genus and six new species from the Neotropics. Annals of the Entomological Society of America.100: 810-829.
Klimov, P. B., B. M. OConnor & L. L. Knowles. 2007a. Museum specimens and phylogenies elucidate ecology' s role in coevolutionary associations between mites and their bee hosts. Evolution.61: 1368-1379.
Klimov, P. B., S. B. Vinson & B. M. OConnor. 2007b. Acarinaria in associations of apid bees and chaetodactylid mites. Invertebrate Systematics.21: 109-136.
Klimov, P. B. & B. M. OConnor. 2008. Morphology, evolution, and host associations of bee-associated mites of the family Chaetodactylidae (Acari: Astigmata), with a monographic revision of North American taxa. Miscellaneous Publications Museum of Zoology University of Michigan.199: 1-243.
OConnor, B. M. 1988. Coevolution in astigmatid mite-bee associations. In Needham, G.R.; Page, R.E., Jr; Delfinado-Baker, M.; Bowman, C.E. [Eds]. African honey bees and bee mites. Ellis Horwood Ltd & John Wiley & Son, Chichester, New York, Brisbane etc. 1988: 1-572. Chapter pagination: 339-346.
OConnor, B. M. 1993. Generic relationships in the Chaetodactylidae (Acari: Astigmata) with description of a new genus. Acarologia.34: 345-362.
Okabe, K. & S. Makino. 2002. Phoretic mite fauna on the large carpenter bee Xylocopa appendiculata circumvolans (Hymenoptera: Apidae) with descriptions of its acarinaria on both sexes. Journal of Acarological Society of Japan.11: 73-84.
Qu, D., Y. Maeta, K. J. Nakatsuka, K. Kenji & M. Goubara. 2003. Reproductive strategy in the two species of cleptoparasitic astigmatid mites, Chaetodactylus nipponicus and Tortonia sp. (Acari: Chaetodactylidae and Suidasiidae), infesting Osmia cornifrons (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) II. Life history, phoretic positions, development and reproductivity. Japanese Journal of Entomology (New Series).6: 55-73.
Roubik, D. W. 1987. Notes on the biology of anthophorid bee Tetrapedia and the mite Chaetodactylus panamensis Baker, Roubik and Delfinado-Baker (Acari: Chaetodactylidae). International Journal of Acarology.13: 75-76.
Van Asselt, L. 2000. Observations on the life cycle of Chaetodactylus osmiae (Dufour, 1839) (Acari: Chaetodactylidae) parasitic on the solitary bee, Osmia rufa (L.), 1758 (Insecta: Hymenoptera) in Belgium. International Journal of Acarology.26: 221-228.



B. OConnor and P. Klimov ©
Created: May 17, 2011
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